UFO Alien

Scientists Are Hunting For Alien Artifacts Across The Solar System.

Do aliens exist? Almost certainly. The Universe is vast and ancient, and our corner of it is not particularly special. If life emerged here, it probably did elsewhere.

Keep in mind this is a super broad assumption. A single instance of fossilized archaebacteria-like organisms five superclusters away would be all it takes to say, “Yes, there are aliens!” …if we could find them somehow.

Wiretapping ET
Until we can send paleontologists to other galaxies, the best way to search for aliens is to stay at home and look for “techno-signatures.”

What are they exactly? Honestly, we don’t know, but we can make some good assumptions. For example, when we use radios to communicate, we produce signals that are very different than the natural sort of energy you’d get from a star.

It’s reasonable to assume aliens would do the same thing for their communications, so we mainly search for unnatural-looking radio signals from fixed points far away in space.

Radio sensing, or any scientific attempt to detect non-human techno-signatures, can be referred to as the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). SETI efforts are generally led by organizations like the SETI Institute and Breakthrough Listen. Citizen scientists play a key role in analyzing data as it’s gathered and sometimes even making their own follow-up observations on possible detections.

So far, several candidate detections have been made, but none have been confirmed.

That’s no surprise since the Universe is vast and ancient. It’s a matter of sample size. As Jill Tarter pointed out, if you scooped up a glass of ocean water and searched it for fish, you probably wouldn’t find any. As time spent searching increases and technology improves, our odds of detection improve.

Are aliens nearby?
Probably not, for the same reason that the Universe is vast and ancient. It takes more technology than Earth has to travel past more resources than our entire Solar System has just to get here.

SETI can be done from home by detecting radio, optical, and gravity waves. Messages could be exchanged between civilizations with the same technology. Short of tourism, there’s just not much reason to make the trip. Should we check, though? Sure! Even if we don’t find aliens, who knows what else we could learn by searching?

Our first challenge here is defining the size of the Solar System. Neptune orbits the Sun at an average distance of 30 AU. The Oort cloud may extend to as far as 100,000 AU from the Sun. The factor of difference in volume to search is over 37 billion.

By comparison, if you were tasked with finding an alien in New York and you forgot to ask “city or state?” the factor of difference in search area would be only 180.

The next big challenge is one of stealth – a special case of the Fermi paradox. If they are here, the aliens don’t seem to be trying very hard to say hello. Whether it’s because their artifacts are inert, their sensors are passive, their technology is undetectable by us – or they’re just not there – remains to be seen.

This conundrum is found at the dramatic core of the second act of most submarine movies, but at least in those movies, you know the other guys are there. So either we send Sean Connery up there to make the aliens give us a ping, one ping only, or…

The Galileo Project
Founded in July of 2021 by Avi Loeb and Frank Laukien of Harvard University, the Galileo Project is the first scientific research program to search for astro-archaeological artifacts near Earth. They mostly use the term Extraterrestrial Technological Civilizations (ETCs) instead of ETI – basically the same thing but without judging alien intelligence by human standards.

The Galileo team has been very consistent in bringing a rational tone to the discourse around alien visitation. For example, the project has publicly committed to testing only “known-physics” hypotheses and to analyzing only new data.

The project is “agnostic to the outcome,” meaning that its only goal is to gather and analyze data in a reliable and reproducible way, openly sharing both the data and their testable conclusions. For science, this is all normal and expected, but for anyone genuinely curious about ancient aliens, The Galileo Project is a desperately needed breath of fresh air.

The Galileo Project has three main experimental tracks:

Imaging Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) in the infrared, radio, and optical bands and recording audio data. The team has designed, built, and deployed their own observation equipment and AI to gather and interpret these data (shown below). At the time of writing, the suite of instruments has been deployed for calibration and testing and will be redeployed for full operation in the next few months.
Rendezvousing with future InterStellar Objects (ISO’s) passing through the Solar System like Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov, with an estimated project budget of just over $1 billion, or about one quarter the price of a single SLS launch.
Recovering the fragments from interstellar objects that collide with Earth, such as CNEOS 2014-01-08 that impacted off the coast of Papua New Guinea. At the time of writing, an expedition has just been fully funded, and production of specialized machinery has begun.
Searching for small alien satellites orbiting the Earth using the Vera C. Rubin Observatory when it comes online in 2023. This will require developing new advanced software to detect what would be very small and fast-moving objects, likely in irregular orbits. The AI will also scour data from human-made satellites for nearby alien techno-signatures.
Focusing on physical artifacts is a new strategy in SETI, but Loeb and Laukien are optimistic. Artifacts, they point out, are necessarily less fleeting than radio signals.

While an object might be technically more difficult to detect than a signal, an object would not have to somehow repeat itself if missed the first time. Also unlike light, most physical objects in our galaxy are gravitationally bound to it. This makes detection less time-critical for a physical object.


Like every SETI effort, The Galileo project has to do the most it can with what they have. In its current state, the project couldn’t detect a magnetic anomaly on our Moon, let alone a time capsule left for humanity on Planet X. (In fairness Planet X hasn’t been discovered yet, only predicted.) But the experimental tracks that are already in motion exemplify three cost-effective ways to investigate three reasonable sets of assumptions of what alien visits might look like.

The bottom line is that, as Loeb writes, “the lack of ‘extraordinary evidence’ is often self-inflicted ignorance.” Project Galileo is not investigating some triviality like black swans or square trees; it is impartially asking one of humanity’s most fundamental questions in a new way. “Are we alone?” Well, let’s start by checking the backyard.

Want to be among the first to find out when the Galileo Project makes an interesting detection? Head over to Twitter and follow @universetoday. Then, make sure to follow @galileoproject1. Based on Seth Shostak’s recounting of a candidate radio detection in 1997, there’s a good chance you’ll hear about it before your head of state!

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N𝚊v𝚢 𝚙𝚊t𝚎nt 𝚙𝚊𝚙𝚎𝚛s 𝚍𝚎t𝚊il 𝚊 “w𝚎𝚊𝚙𝚘n 𝚋𝚊s𝚎𝚍 𝚘n s𝚙𝚊c𝚎tim𝚎 m𝚘𝚍i𝚏ic𝚊ti𝚘n” in th𝚎 c𝚘nt𝚎xt 𝚘𝚏 𝚞𝚏𝚘s.

Th𝚎 𝚞S N𝚊v𝚢’s 𝚙𝚊t𝚎nt𝚎𝚍 t𝚎chn𝚘l𝚘𝚐i𝚎s mi𝚐ht 𝚊𝚙𝚙𝚎𝚊𝚛 t𝚘 𝚋𝚎 t𝚊k𝚎n st𝚛𝚊i𝚐ht 𝚏𝚛𝚘m th𝚎 𝚙𝚊𝚐𝚎s 𝚘𝚏 𝚊 sci𝚎nc𝚎 𝚏icti𝚘n n𝚘v𝚎l. 𝚊m𝚘n𝚐 th𝚎s𝚎 𝚙𝚊t𝚎nt 𝚏ilin𝚐s, th𝚎 N𝚊v𝚢 h𝚊s 𝚞nv𝚎il𝚎𝚍 𝚙l𝚊ns…

Th𝚎 𝚙𝚞zzlin𝚐 n𝚊t𝚞𝚛𝚎 𝚘𝚏 th𝚎 𝚛𝚘ck 𝚙𝚊intin𝚐s in S𝚎𝚐𝚘 C𝚊n𝚢𝚘n, which 𝚍𝚊t𝚎 𝚋𝚊ck 8,000 𝚢𝚎𝚊𝚛s.

S𝚎𝚐𝚘 C𝚊n𝚢𝚘n is l𝚘c𝚊t𝚎𝚍 in 𝚞t𝚊h, 𝚞S𝚊, 𝚊n𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛 s𝚎v𝚎𝚛𝚊l mill𝚎nni𝚊, N𝚊tiv𝚎 𝚊m𝚎𝚛ic𝚊ns h𝚊v𝚎 𝚙𝚊int𝚎𝚍 it with 𝚛𝚊th𝚎𝚛 st𝚛𝚊n𝚐𝚎 im𝚊𝚐𝚎s. Th𝚎 m𝚘st 𝚊nci𝚎nt 𝚙𝚎t𝚛𝚘𝚐l𝚢𝚙hs 𝚍𝚊t𝚎 𝚋𝚊ck 8 th𝚘𝚞s𝚊n𝚍…

Wh𝚘 𝚊𝚛𝚎 th𝚎 𝚐𝚎n𝚞in𝚎 𝚊𝚞th𝚘𝚛s 𝚘𝚏 th𝚎 C𝚛𝚘𝚙 Ci𝚛cl𝚎s?

Th𝚎 𝚙h𝚎n𝚘m𝚎n𝚘n 𝚘𝚏 c𝚛𝚘𝚙 ci𝚛cl𝚎s, 𝚘𝚏t𝚎n c𝚘nsi𝚍𝚎𝚛𝚎𝚍 𝚊 𝚛𝚎l𝚊tiv𝚎l𝚢 𝚛𝚎c𝚎nt 𝚎ni𝚐m𝚊, h𝚊s 𝚛𝚘𝚘ts 𝚍𝚊tin𝚐 𝚋𝚊ck 𝚘v𝚎𝚛 300 𝚢𝚎𝚊𝚛s. Whil𝚎 th𝚎s𝚎 int𝚛ic𝚊t𝚎 𝚙𝚊tt𝚎𝚛ns h𝚊v𝚎 c𝚘mm𝚘nl𝚢 𝚊𝚙𝚙𝚎𝚊𝚛𝚎𝚍 in 𝚏i𝚎l𝚍s, s𝚊n𝚍,…

In 1996, 𝚋𝚛𝚊zili𝚊n 𝚊𝚛m𝚎𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛c𝚎s 𝚛𝚎𝚙𝚘𝚛t𝚎𝚍l𝚢 𝚍𝚎t𝚊in𝚎𝚍 𝚋𝚎in𝚐s 𝚛𝚎s𝚎m𝚋lin𝚐 𝚊li𝚎ns 𝚍𝚞𝚛in𝚐 th𝚎 V𝚊𝚛𝚐inh𝚊 𝚞𝚏𝚘 C𝚊s𝚎.

In J𝚊n𝚞𝚊𝚛𝚢 1996, 𝚊 s𝚎𝚛i𝚎s 𝚘𝚏 𝚎v𝚎nts 𝚞n𝚏𝚘l𝚍𝚎𝚍 in th𝚎 cit𝚢 𝚘𝚏 V𝚊𝚛𝚐inh𝚊, 𝚋𝚛𝚊zil, inv𝚘lvin𝚐 th𝚎 𝚊ll𝚎𝚐𝚎𝚍 𝚊𝚙𝚙𝚛𝚎h𝚎nsi𝚘n 𝚘𝚏 𝚎xt𝚛𝚊t𝚎𝚛𝚛𝚎st𝚛i𝚊l 𝚋𝚎in𝚐s 𝚋𝚢 th𝚎 𝚋𝚛𝚊zili𝚊n milit𝚊𝚛𝚢. Th𝚎 inci𝚍𝚎nt c𝚊m𝚎…

St𝚊𝚛 𝚘𝚏 th𝚎 1979 𝚏ilm “𝚊li𝚎n” Cl𝚊ims 𝚊ct𝚞𝚊l 𝚊li𝚎n 𝚊𝚋𝚍𝚞cti𝚘n.

𝚢𝚊𝚙h𝚎t K𝚘tt𝚘, 𝚛𝚎n𝚘wn𝚎𝚍 𝚏𝚘𝚛 his 𝚛𝚘l𝚎 in 𝚛i𝚍l𝚎𝚢 Sc𝚘tt’s “𝚊li𝚎n” 𝚏ilm wh𝚎𝚛𝚎 h𝚎 m𝚎t 𝚊 𝚐𝚛im 𝚏𝚊t𝚎, h𝚊s 𝚛𝚎c𝚎ntl𝚢 𝚍iscl𝚘s𝚎𝚍 th𝚊t h𝚎 𝚋𝚎li𝚎v𝚎s h𝚎 h𝚊s 𝚎nc𝚘𝚞nt𝚎𝚛𝚎𝚍 𝚎xt𝚛𝚊t𝚎𝚛𝚛𝚎st𝚛i𝚊l 𝚋𝚎in𝚐s…

𝚞𝚏𝚘 𝚘𝚋s𝚎𝚛v𝚊ti𝚘ns 𝚊𝚏t𝚎𝚛 W𝚘𝚛l𝚍 W𝚊𝚛 II, Cl𝚊ssi𝚏i𝚎𝚍 𝚞n𝚍𝚎𝚛t𝚊kin𝚐s, 𝚊n𝚍 𝚎ni𝚐m𝚊tic 𝚏i𝚐𝚞𝚛𝚎s in 𝚍𝚊𝚛k 𝚊tti𝚛𝚎.

𝚐𝚎𝚛m𝚊n 𝚞-𝚋𝚘𝚊ts w𝚎𝚛𝚎 s𝚙𝚘tt𝚎𝚍 𝚊l𝚘n𝚐 v𝚊𝚛i𝚘𝚞s 𝚙𝚘ints 𝚘𝚏 th𝚎 𝚊tl𝚊ntic c𝚘𝚊stlin𝚎, incl𝚞𝚍in𝚐 𝚘𝚏𝚏 th𝚎 sh𝚘𝚛𝚎s 𝚘𝚏 N𝚘𝚛th C𝚊𝚛𝚘lin𝚊, S𝚘𝚞th C𝚊𝚛𝚘lin𝚊, 𝚊n𝚍 𝚐𝚎𝚘𝚛𝚐i𝚊. 𝚘n th𝚎 𝚙𝚊ci𝚏ic c𝚘𝚊st, th𝚎 𝚍𝚎v𝚊st𝚊tin𝚐…

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